|Classification and external resources|
This is a list of cancer types. Cancer is a group of diseases that involve abnormal increases in the number of cells, with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors or lumps are cancerous; benign tumors are not classified as being cancer because they do not spread to other parts of the body. There are over 100 different known cancers that affect humans.
Cancers are often described by the body part that they originated in. However, some body parts contain multiple types of tissue, so for greater precision, cancers are additionally classified by the type of cell that the tumor cells originated from. These types include:
- Carcinoma: Cancers derived from epithelial cells. This group includes many of the most common cancers, particularly in older adults. Nearly all cancers developing in the breast, prostate, lung, pancreas, and colon are carcinomas.
- Sarcoma: Cancers arising from connective tissue (i.e. bone, cartilage, fat, nerve), each of which develop from cells originating in mesenchymal cells outside the bone marrow.
- Lymphoma and leukemia: These two classes of cancer arise from cells that make blood. Leukemia is the most common type of cancer in children accounting for about 30%. However, far more adults develop lymphoma and leukemia.
- Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and dysgerminoma, respectively).
- Blastoma: Cancers derived from immature "precursor" cells or embryonic tissue. Blastomas are more common in children than in older adults.
Cancers are usually named using -carcinoma, -sarcoma or -blastoma as a suffix, with the Latin or Greek word for the organ or tissue of origin as the root. For example, cancers of the liver parenchyma arising from malignant epithelial cells is called hepatocarcinoma, while a malignancy arising from primitive liver precursor cells is called a hepatoblastoma, and a cancer arising from fat cells is called a liposarcoma. For some common cancers, the English organ name is used. For example, the most common type of breast cancer is called ductal carcinoma of the breast. Here, the adjective ductal refers to the appearance of the cancer under the microscope, which suggests that it has originated in the milk ducts.
Benign tumors (which are not cancers) are usually named using -oma as a suffix with the organ name as the root. For example, a benign tumor of smooth muscle cells is called a leiomyoma (the common name of this frequently occurring benign tumor in the uterus is fibroid). Confusingly, some types of cancer use the -noma suffix, examples including melanoma and seminoma.
Bone and muscle
Brain and nervous system
- Anal cancer
- Appendix cancer
- Carcinoid tumor, gastrointestinal
- Colon cancer
- Extrahepatic bile duct cancer
- Gallbladder cancer
- Gastric (stomach) cancer
- Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor
- Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)
- Hepatocellular cancer
- Pancreatic cancer, islet cell
- Rectal cancer
Genitourinary and gynecologic
- Bladder cancer
- Cervical cancer
- Endometrial cancer
- Extragonadal germ cell tumor
- Ovarian cancer
- Ovarian epithelial cancer (surface epithelial-stromal tumor)
- Ovarian germ cell tumor
- Penile cancer
- Renal cell carcinoma
- Renal pelvis and ureter, transitional cell cancer
- Prostate cancer
- Testicular cancer
- Gestational trophoblastic tumor
- Ureter and renal pelvis, transitional cell cancer
- Urethral cancer
- Uterine sarcoma
- Vaginal cancer
- Vulvar cancer
- Wilms tumor
Head and neck
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
- Acute myeloid leukemia
- AIDS-related lymphoma
- Burkitt's lymphoma
- Central nervous system lymphoma
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
- Chronic myelogenous leukemia
- Chronic myeloproliferative disorders
- Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
- Hairy cell leukemia
- Hodgkin lymphoma
- Leukemia, hairy cell
- Lymphoma, AIDS-related
- Lymphoma, Burkitt
- Multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm
- Myelodysplastic syndromes
- Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
- Mycosis fungoides
- Sézary syndrome
- Waldenström macroglobulinemia
Thoracic and respiratory
Unsorted (so far)
- "Defining Cancer". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- Varricchio, Claudette G. (2004). A cancer source book for nurses. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. p. 229. ISBN 0-7637-3276-1.
- American Cancer Society. "Melanoma Skin Cancer". American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
- American Cancer Society. "What is Testicular Cancer". American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society. Retrieved 5 July 2017.